What threatens plants with rainy and cold summers?
We are all waiting for the summer, heat, warmth, clear and sunny days. Waiting for the summer and our vegetables, trees and shrubs, our flower plants. Alas, unfortunately, more and more often the summer periods cannot boast of a sufficient amount of heat, but they generously water us with rains and frighten us with cold nights. What happens to plants in such seasons, what crop to expect and what can be changed before it is too late, we’ll talk about this today.
So, for starters, let's go around the garden and talk to the most common plants: what they will tell us, what are their impressions about the weather of the current season.
Peppers, as we know, are southerners in our country, they love warmth and abundance, and not at all an excess of moisture. Peppers grow best at temperatures from 24 to 28 degrees above zero, but at 20 and below they somehow are not particularly and want to grow, it seems as if they froze in place and no development occurs at all. But not only temperature for peppers plays an important role, humidity also makes its own adjustments, because if there is a lot of moisture, the roots begin to rot, and this immediately affects negatively the growth, flowering, and formation of pepper fruits. Against the background of all this, outbreaks of a wide variety of fungal diseases begin, pests, especially slugs, appear.
What to do? Of course, hide peppers in a greenhouse and keep fungicides ready, since fungal diseases that activate in particularly wet years are difficult to cure with folk remedies. Peppers should be hidden as soon as possible at least in the most primitive greenhouse, having built arcs of hard wire and covered them with spanbond or lutrasil for the night - breathing materials. Do not forget that already at +5 degrees pepper can completely stop growing and even die, so if a sharp drop in temperature is expected, then instead of lutrasil you need to use a plastic film. In addition, plastic bottles with warm water or cobblestones preheated in the oven or on the fire can be placed in such an impromptu greenhouse.
To reduce the amount of moisture in the soil, try to loosen it more often, watering should be reduced to a minimum or completely stopped. Fertilizers must be applied.
For the prevention of diseases, it is possible to pollinate plants with wood ash every 3-4 days.
Cucumbers - they also like warmth, although excess moisture can even be beneficial for them, but if it rains every day and is cold, powdery mildew can hit the plants, but those who are afraid of the spider mite can sleep peacefully in such weather. most likely will not appear. Against powdery mildew, no matter how you like to do this, you need to use fungicides, we recall that in such weather, folk remedies are unlikely to help. Do not forget about the frequent loosening of the soil and protection from slugs, in damp weather there are a lot of them on cucumbers.
Cucumbers, by the way, can also be placed under shelters like those made for pepper.
Tomatoes - they are not particularly afraid of low temperatures, but the excess of moisture scares them. In addition, phytophthora is activated in such weather, and often with such force that you can’t even try to use anything “folk”, it still will not help. Greenhouses over tomatoes - this is also a way out, and of course, frequent loosening of the soil, so that on hot days moisture evaporates more quickly and to prevent root decay.
If phytophthora is not yet available, then you need to use the moment, temper the immunity of the tomato. For these purposes, it is desirable to treat them with iodine-kefir mixture. To prepare it, it is necessary to pour a liter of kefir, whey or skim milk into a bucket of water with a capacity of ten liters and add 12-15 drops of iodine, after which the plants should be thoroughly treated with foliage.
Since July, when the risk of phytophthora is even higher than before, it is necessary to treat the plants with 1% Bordeaux fluid. For processing it is better to use a spray gun, it is much more uniform than a watering can, distributes the life-saving fluid.
In greenhouses (this applies to all vegetable crops so grown), it is necessary to try to remove condensate and warm the greenhouse by laying out heated cobblestones or bottles with water there. Try to apply dressings moderately, otherwise the plants will begin to fatten. Try to remove the fruits early, if it is difficult to do with peppers, then cucumbers and tomatoes can be removed at the stage of gherkins and milk ripeness, respectively.
Zucchini, pumpkins and other gourds
In melons and gourds - pumpkins, zucchini and others - leaves can rain to the ground, get dirty, this worsens the development of plants, so you can lay non-woven covering material under them, and here it is also important to monitor slugs.
Cabbage: the butterfly doesn’t fly in such weather, but slugs can literally destroy the cabbage in those five working days that you were not in the country. For at least some protection, it can be pollinated with wood ash, and sprinkle with mustard powder around the cabbage.
Garden and berry
Here the aphid rules, it affects almost all berry crops to one degree or another, say, currants and viburnum the most, apple trees and pears - a little less, irga - weakly, it can settle on bird cherry or chokeberry. Aphids in the wet years are larger, because due to the abundance of moisture, the growth processes of plants are delayed, young leaves on the tops of the growths of the current year remain tender longer, which is aphids. It is best to use insecticides against aphids, but if the chemistry in your garden is inappropriate, you can try treating aphids with infusion of hot pepper (a teaspoon per liter) or garlic (a couple of cloves per liter), but we will repeat: in such years, when almost everyone it rains a day, folk remedies, as a rule, do not help. In addition, in order to effectively combat aphids, the first thing to do is to destroy the anthills, which become very numerous in wet and cold years.
Medvedka also reproduces more actively during this period, there are a lot of folk remedies, but they help only partially, so it is better to use reliable preparations in granules like Thunder or Fenaxin.
Fruit rot - in wet weather it can affect everything - from strawberries to apple trees and pears. Fruits and berries suffer, but usually those that hang on shoots for a long time usually spoil, so why wait? Harvesting should be done more often, and if in a regular season, to collect, say, gooseberries or igrues, you only needed a couple of calls, then in the current season you will have to make them twice as much, but in this way you can save the berries from rot or powdery mildew, which may affects gooseberries and currants. Plants require protection, but you can’t use chemistry anymore: the harvest is about to begin. In order to get rid of powdery mildew, you can try to treat the plants with a soap-soda solution, it is suitable for vegetable, fruit, berry, and ornamental crops. To prepare it, you need to take 20-30 g of soda ash, 10-15 g of liquid soap and put it all in a bucket of water heated to 35 degrees, then mix thoroughly, season with a spray bottle and go to fight powdery mildew. When treating, it is better to moisten not only the affected areas, but also still healthy, and the soil should also be sprayed.
In addition to diseases, pests are also activated - slugs literally attack, and various caterpillars seek to destroy the entire crop; all this needs to be monitored. Chemistry can not be used against slugs, it’s enough to put pieces of slate or cardboard on the plot, at night the slugs will crawl under them for a nap, and in the morning you will find and expel them from the plot. This method of struggle is relevant for slugs in the garden, in the garden, and in the flower garden, too.
In such seasons, do not forget about prevention, for example, there is a good remedy Fitosporin-M, it is a biological preparation that can be treated with plants to protect against a wide variety of fungal and bacterial diseases, including late blight, root rot, scab, powdery mildew, rust and like them.
In the garden, as in the garden, try to loosen the soil more often, cut out all the shoots with signs of infection on them, especially in shrubs. Try to process such plants with copper-based preparations - HOM, Oksikhom, Bordeaux liquid.
Do not forget about the removal of weeds on the site, in such seasons the grass grows as abundantly as possible, it prevents the evaporation of excess moisture even on rare warm days and this threatens the occurrence of an infection that can affect the base of the trunks. For example, in stone fruit crops (apricot, peach, plum, cherry, cherry), the root neck will suffer and if it starts to rot, the whole plant may die.
Spacing between rows and near-bushes of shrubs with a strong abundance of rainfall can be mulched with dry sawdust. They can be removed after heavy rains, spreading out on a flat surface for drying. What is the use of sawdust? They do not allow the soil to erode, inhibit the growth of weeds, and accumulate moisture. If you have, for example, a valuable gooseberry bush on the site, and the rains pour continuously, and there is already a risk of rotting of the root system, then you can do it as described above: lay down sawdust before rain, and remove it after it.
If possible, try to thin out the crown of shrubs, maybe there are shoots that thicken it, they can be removed, because if it is damp and cold, and the crown is thickened, any mushroom infection can occur, their list is huge.
Flowers also suffer in rainy and cold summers, they also have a fungal infection, aphids, they are eaten by slugs, the root system begins to rot from excess moisture. Here, however, it is somewhat simpler: we do not harvest crops from flowers, so they can be protected by treating fungicides and insecticides, be sure to strictly follow the instructions on the packaging.
Flowers in flowerpots and pots are in a special risk group: the soil in containers is quickly waterlogged, and if rainy days are not replaced by hot ones, then the roots will begin to rot. There are two ways: if the flowerpots are very large, then you can cover their surface with plastic wrap so that moisture no longer enters the soil, but after rain you must remove the film and often loosen the soil; if the pots are small, then it is advisable to bring them under a canopy during the rain, and then take them out.
In such harsh years, all crops, both flower and fruit, and vegetable and berry, can be sprayed with foliar supplements that increase immunity and treated with drugs that increase immunity - such as Epin, Heteroauxin and others, they are safe and effective.