Hyssop officinalis - beautiful and healthy
It is difficult to name a region with a warm and temperate climate, where there would be no medicinal and ornamental hyssop plant. Perennial semi-shrub culture of the Lamiaceae family (Lamiaceae) is allocated in a separate genus - hyssop (Hyssopus) with a typical representative - hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis).
The greatest variety of wild hyssop (hyssop vulgaris) is found in Western and Central Asia, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean, which indicates the place of its origin. Hyssop common in the wild is widespread throughout Europe, in the warm and temperate regions of the European and Asian parts of Russia and the CIS countries.
The study of hyssop species and its cultivation made it possible to isolate hyssop officinalis as a species containing significant amounts of substances that have a positive effect on human health.
At present, hyssop officinalis has been introduced into the official pharmacopeia in Romania, Portugal, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and Germany. In the form of dry charges and alcohol tinctures, hyssop officinalis is sold in pharmacies in Russia and some CIS countries.
The composition and useful properties of hyssop officinalis
For medicinal purposes, use the leaves of hyssop officinalis, roots and the upper flowering part of plants. Dry the plant in the shade. Properly dried herb has a pleasant sage bitter-spicy aroma. The taste of grass is astringent, with a camphor aftertaste.
The roots and the aerial flowering part of the hyssop officinalis contain:
- flavonoids, including hyssopine, diosmin, hesperidin, vicenin-2;
- essential oil, from 0.6 to 2.0%; The main components of the essential oil are: geraniol, thujone, pinocamphone, borneol, fellandren; greenish yellow liquid; its components give the essential oil a spicy aroma with a distinct turpentine-camphor odor;
- triterpenic acids, including oleic, ursolic, chlorogenic;
- vitamins - “C” (0.2%), vitamins of the “B” group (B1, B2, B6), “A”, “E”, “PP”, “K”, “D”;
- macro- and microelements: potassium, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, boron, fluorine, chlorine, tungsten, flint;
- tannins and bitter substances, alcohols and aldehydes; they include resins and gum.
The chemical components of the hyssop officinalis organs determine its healing properties. Their pronounced positive effect is manifested:
- with inflammatory diseases;
- as an expectorant;
- wound healing agent.
Hyssop officinalis is widely used in gynecology, with hormonal disorders, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases (dyspepsia, constipation), anemia, and many other ailments and diseases. Good volatile.
Infusions and decoctions of hyssop officinalis excite the central nervous system, so it is necessary to use its preparations, even pharmacy, carefully, after consulting a doctor first.
In folk medicine, hyssop officinalis is used for bronchitis, laryngitis, bronchial asthma, neurosis and angina pectoris, with rheumatic attacks, as a tonic, diuretic and anthelmintic.
The antimicrobial property allows the use of hyssop officinalis for purulent staphylococcal skin lesions. Broths washed their eyes, singers used in the form of rinses with hoarseness. Everywhere, rinsing with decoctions is used for stomatitis and pharyngeal diseases.
Hyssop officinalis - valuable honey plant (aromatic honey, one of the best with medicinal properties).
Raw materials are widely used in perfumes. In cooking, hyssop is used as a spice-flavor culture. It promotes digestion and stimulates appetite.
Young shoots of hyssop with fresh and dried leaves are used to flavor cold snacks. They are added to improve the taste of salads of fresh cucumbers and tomatoes, first (soups of potatoes and beans) and second courses (stuffed eggs, stews, zrazy). Hyssop is a part of tonic drinks and absinthe.
For those who do not know the distinctive signs of hyssop well or who do not identify hyssop officinalis with synonyms, we recall that the people call this plant:
- blue sage;
- St. John's wort blue;
- hyssop ordinary (not to be confused with the wild species of hyssop common).
Hyssop officinalis is a perennial low shrub with an aerial mass of 20 to 80 cm in height.
Hyssop root medicinal system is pivotal. The main roots are woody with a large number of lateral additional roots. Numerous stems form a lush, slightly sprawling bush. The stems are rod-shaped, tetrahedral, at the base they are lignified.
The location of the leaves of hyssop officinalis on the stems is opposite. The leaves are small, sessile. The leaf blade is whole-edge, lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, dark green, on both sides covered with elastic, ferruginous villi, through which in hot weather vapors of essential oil are released. The size of the leaves from the base to the top is smaller.
Inflorescences of hyssop officinalis are spike-shaped, often one-sided, located in the upper part of plants. Below are located in the axils of the leaves, 3-7 small flowers in the form of false half-whorls.
Corollas of flowers are blue, purple, less common white, pink. Two-lipped, asymmetric flowers. Stamens are long, extend beyond the corolla. A single flower lives 5-7 days and then fades. The blooming of flowers is gradual. Flowering continues from June to September.
The fruit of hyssop officinalis is a trihedral nut, in shape it is oblong-ovate. Seeds are small, dark brown. Ripen in the second half of August - the first half of September. Seed germination lasts 3-4 years.
Hyssop varieties for growing in the country
In the country, hyssop officinalis can be grown as a spice-flavor culture, ornamental shrub and honey plant for beekeepers.
Varieties of hyssop officinalis for a drug bed
For the purpose of using medicinal decoctions, tinctures, and teas, it is best to grow medicinal hyssop in the pharmacy garden, where they do not make fertilizers and, most importantly, do not spray plants with toxic chemicals. Recommended for growing varieties:
- Otradny Semko;
- Nikitsky white;
- The healer;
- Lapis lazuli;
- Hoarfrost and others.
Plants bloom with blue, bright blue and white flowers.
According to the results of chemical analysis, some researchers report that the largest amount of essential oils contains plants with blue flowers, rather than white and pink-flowered. According to other sources, the maximum amount of essential oils during flowering contains varieties with white flowers, the minimum with pink flowers and the intermediate with blue and blue.
Hyssop in landscape design
Summer residents use bright and ornamental plants to form hedges. Low grades - for bordering rockeries, paths, flower beds, borders.
In landscape design using varieties:
- Nikitsky white;
- Summer resident;
- Pink fog;
- Pink flamingo;
- The doctor, as well as varieties recommended for cultivation in the pharmacy.
Varieties Accord, Pink fog, Healer and Pink flamingo are entered in the State register of the Russian Federation.
All varieties of hyssop fit beautifully into flower beds from spice-flavor plants when grown together with mint, lavender, rosemary, oregano and are used in cooking.
In the summer cottage for medicinal purposes in the pharmacy, it is enough to grow 2 varieties of hyssop officinalis with colorful flowers. If the owners keep beehives, the number of varieties will not matter: all of them are good melliferous plants and attract pollinators.
All types and varieties of hyssop are very unpretentious plants. In natural nature, they occupy mainly steppe, stony dry areas, mountain slopes. The culture is frosty and winter hardy, drought tolerant.
When growing hyssop officinalis in summer cottages, plants prefer well-drained, loose soils, neutral or slightly alkaline, and cannot tolerate waterlogged and saline areas. With quality care in one place can live up to 10 years. After 5 years of use, they need rejuvenation by the transplantation method.
Hyssop's Care Requirements
Hyssop can grow anywhere in the garden, but it needs enough light. In the shade, the content of essential oils sharply decreases in it.
Hyssop is a very interesting plant in terms of care.
- The culture is not affected by diseases and pests, but can get sick from excessive watering and feeding.
- Needs weeding at a young age and pruning flowering shoots.
- With regular pruning, the plant shrubs well, throws out new candles with buds.
- Cropped flowering branches are dried and used in teas and decoctions.
- In winter, the bush is cut, leaving high (15-20 cm) stumps above the ground.
- Before the bushes close, the soil after watering is mulched.
Hyssop is propagated by seeds and vegetative division of the bush and cuttings.
Hyssop seed propagation
For seed propagation, hyssop seeds can be bought or prepared on their own.
With independent harvesting, the browned tops of faded plants are cut and laid out on paper. When completely dried, the boxes crack, and the seeds are easily shaken out on paper. Seeds remain viable for up to 4 years. Hyssop blooms from the first year of life, but seeds are suitable for reproduction, starting from 2 year old plants.
Sowing seeds in open ground
In warm regions, hyssop seeds are sown in soil without stratification in May or early October. The soil is prepared as usual under all flowering shrubs. Sowing seeds directly into the soil, the seedlings are thinned out when they reach a height of 8-10 cm, leaving a distance of 15-20-25 cm in the row, and 45-50-70 cm between rows.
Seedling cultivation from seeds
Hyssop during seed propagation is often grown through seedlings. Seedlings are sown in late February - early March in prepared light permeable, well-moistened soil. Sowing is carried out in grooves of centimeter depth, located after 5-6 cm. Sowing is sprinkled with a dry substrate. The tray is covered with a film, creating the conditions of the greenhouse. After 2 weeks, hyssop seedlings appear. Seedlings in the nursery grows for 2 months, sometimes less. Seedlings break through after 7-10 days, increasing the distance between plants to 5 cm or planting in separate containers. When seedlings form 5 true leaves, seedlings are planted in open ground after 15-20 cm.
Hyssop vegetative propagation
Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut with a sharp tool in spring or summer from green shoots of the basal zone. Hyssop cuttings are immediately planted in a prepared place or bed, previously dug up and sufficiently moistened with a root solution. For better rooting, the landing is covered with a cropped plastic bottle or film. The rooted stalk blooms only the next year. Further care is the same as for adult hyssop plants.
Reproduction by dividends is the simplest. Usually, by 5 years of planting, hyssop is renewed by planting. An adult bush during spring transplant is divided into several parts. Young are selected. Each split must have a part of the root system and an annual shoot. Landing is carried out in shallow wells, watered. After absorbing water, mulch with any small mulch.
- Before the closure of the aerial mass, plants systematically loosen.
- Watering is carried out once every 2-3 weeks with drying of the upper soil layer of only young plants. Further watering is carried out in dry periods. A small amount of moisture is enough for plants. They endure drought calmly.
- If necessary, young plants are fed once a month with complete fertilizer (nitrofos, nitroammophos and others). One of the top dressings can be replaced by the introduction of wood ash. Since the root of the hyssop is pivotal, then by 2 to 3 years of age, you can go to a one-time feeding. Moreover, top dressing must be done before flowering. In practice, hyssop is fed if necessary or when grown on depleted soils.
Procurement of raw hyssop officinalis for home use
For homemade blanks, flowering tops of hyssop are cut, starting from 2 years of age. The length of cut shoots is 10-15 cm. Only green flowering shoots are cut. Lignified or lignified are not suitable. Dried, spread out on tables, in a dry room or in dryers at a temperature of + 35 ... + 40 ° С. At a higher drying temperature, plants lose their healing qualities. A properly dried plant remains green, has a pungent odor, and a bitter taste.