Is the harm from small aphids great?
Amateur gardeners often consider aphids to be less dangerous than other insects, because it usually does not damage the fruit. Meanwhile, the main harm affects the second year, when she herself may no longer be in the garden. Settling on plants in whole colonies, sucking out the sap of plants, these small inactive insects thereby greatly inhibit them. After this, leaves and shoots are deformed, sooty mushrooms settle on them, the general condition of the plant worsens. Damaged plants plant less fruit buds, go weakened in winter, and may partially or even completely die from low temperatures.
Sometimes aphids are difficult to notice due to the fact that they take on the color of those parts of the plants on which their ovoid bodies are located, convex from the back, covered with soft wax secretions in the form of pollen or a gentle gun. The eggs of the insect are black, shiny, elongated.
Aphids are very different. Green apple aphid, plum pollinated aphid, thistle aphid and cherry aphid are most often harmful. Here is more about them.
Green apple aphid damages the apple tree, pear and some other crops. She herself is small (about 2 mm), green. On the shoots of an apple tree, its eggs hibernate, and larvae hatch during the blooming of fruit buds. First, they suck the tips of the blossoming leaves, then they switch to young leaves and buds. During the flowering of the plant, the second generation is already developing, in which there are winged individuals that fly to other trees and quickly settle in the garden. Over the summer, aphids can give 17 (!) Generations.
Plum pollinated aphids damages all stone fruits. With strong reproduction, the underside of the leaves and tops of the shoots are completely covered with a layer of insects. This aphid is larger, its size reaches 3 mm, it is lighter. It also hibernates in the egg phase near the buds and in the cracks of the shoot bark. Larvae appear when the scales on the buds of the plant move apart. Gives up to 10 generations per season.
Thistle aphid also harmful to stone fruits. Damaged leaves curl randomly, and the shoots are bent. Aphid is bright green in size of 2.5 mm. Eggs hibernate. The larvae emerge even before the buds open and suck out the juice from young shoots. Beginning in the third generation, winged individuals appear, flying over to the thistle, sunflower and other asteraceae. Since mid-summer, aphids, mainly from the garden, fly away and return only in autumn to lay eggs.
Cherry aphid harms both cherry and cherry. Leaves damaged by insects turn black, wrinkle and dry. With mass reproduction, the pest can pass to the fruits. This aphid is black, shiny, up to 2.5 mm in size. Eggs winter among the buds on top of the shoots. The increase in the number of pests is very fast. On cherries, aphids give up to 14 generations.
|Plants to protect the garden|
|Plant||What parts of the plant to collect, time of collection||The method of preparation of infusion or broth|
|Chemeritsa Lobela||Roots and aerial parts. In the phase of the "green cone"||1 kg of raw plants, 500 g of semi-dry, 250 g of dry or 100 g of rhizomes insist 24 - 48 hours in 10 l of water. For a decoction: insisting 2-3 hours in the same proportions, boil for 30 minutes in a closed vessel|
|Tobacco, shag||Leaves, stems||For infusion: 400 g of dried raw materials are insisted for 2 days in 10 l of water. An additional 10 l of water is added to the resulting infusion. For broth: 400 g of raw materials are insisted for 1 day in 10 l of water and boiled for 2 hours. An additional 10 l of water is added to the cooled broth.|
|Horse sorrel||Roots||300-400 g pour 10 liters of hot water, insist 2-3 hours|
|Celandine is big||Whole plant||3-4 kg of raw grass (or 1 kg of dry) insist 24-36 hours in 10 liters of water|
|Gray alder||Leaves||2 kg of fresh (or 1 kg of dry) leaves insist 24 hours and boil for 30-40 minutes|
|Common pine||Annual growth||2 kg of needles insist 5-7 days. in 8 liters of water. The infusion is mixed daily. Before spraying, dilute with water 1:10|
|Chilli||Pods||1 kg of raw or 0.5 kg of dried fruit insist 2 days in 10 liters of water. For a decoction, 1 kg of cut fruit is boiled for 1 hour in 10 liters of water, then insisted for 2 days. Diluted in water in a ratio of 1: 7. For spraying take 100 g of concentrate per 10 liters of water|
|Potatoes||Tops||1.2 kg of green mass or 600-800 g of dry insist 3-4 hours in 10 liters of water|
|pharmaceutical camomile||Leaves and inflorescences during flowering||1 kg of dry mass insist 12 hours. Before spraying, dilute with water 1: 8|
|Yarrow, Common Dandelion||The aerial part during flowering, leaves and roots during flowering||800 g of dry grass is steamed with boiling water for 30-40 minutes, topped up with water to 10 l and insisted for 36-48 hours. Boiled water is boiled for 30 minutes 200-300 g of chopped roots or 400 g of fresh leaves (or 20-30 g of dry) are insisted 2-3 h in 10 l of water|
|Bulb onions||Bulbs, Scales||200 g insist 12-17 hours in 10 liters of water|
|Sowing Garlic||Heads||200 g insist in a liter of water for 5 days in a tightly sealed container. 250 ml of infusion in 10 liters of water|
|Ash and soap solution||300 g of ash of softwood trees (or 150 g of hardwood) pour 10 l of hot water, bring to a boil, strain the solution|
|Soap solution||Dissolve 250-300 g of laundry soap in 10 l of water (soft)|
In the fight against aphids, one circumstance should be taken into account. Over 60% of wintering eggs, females lay on root shoots and fat shoots (tops), therefore, if in winter time these shoots are cut and burned, then the amount of harmful insect in the garden can be significantly reduced.
Protecting the garden from aphids, it is quite possible to do without pesticides. It is better to use infusions and decoctions of various plants for this. Moreover, the stronger the plant is crushed, the better it acts. It should be sprayed as soon as the first insects are found. No need to wait until they multiply in large quantities. Before spraying to decoctions and infusions of herbs, you need to add 30-40 g of soap for better adhesion. And another thing to keep in mind is that some plants (for example, Lobel’s hellebore) are poisonous, so when using them you should not forget about safety precautions.
If aphids had no enemies, then the offspring of one female in a year could cover the earth with a multimeter layer. Fortunately, this does not happen, since the aphids really have a lot of enemies: ladybugs, and lacewings, and sirfid flies, etc. Therefore, our task is to preserve and facilitate the reproduction of these friends and allies in the fight against a dangerous pest.
Links to materials:
- Article A. Tertyshnogo, candidate of biological sciences.