How to increase raspberry crop?
Gathering raspberries, many gardeners lament the insignificant crop yield. However, one should not be upset - the plants were able to give exactly as much as external factors allowed them and how much is embedded in the potential of their variety. The yield is, in most cases, the result of our labor.
Raspberry Variety Selection
Say what you like, but the tab for a high harvest of raspberries begins with the choice of variety. And it is better to choose it not on the site of friends or neighbors (although you can still find a good option), but based on descriptions of varietal features and reviews of other gardeners.
"Your variety" must meet your requirements. Taste qualities of berries, their size, color, resistance to shedding, baking, the beginning and duration of fruiting, the shape of the bush, the height and power of the shoots, the tendency to be affected by diseases - absolutely everything matters! And believe me, finding what you want is real!
The variety is determined - it is necessary to purchase planting material. Most likely it will have to be bought (if the option with neighbors is not selected). When buying, you need to turn to truly reliable sources, and not take the word to the first counter seller on the market. At the same time, it is not necessary to take a large number of seedlings, but to purchase plants for planting at least one row, and there, if the chosen one confirms the preferred qualities, plant a full raspberry (following the rules of agricultural technology, you can get a lot of root offspring in the second year).
Place for raspberry
Like any other culture, raspberries have their own claims to the soil, the sun and neighbors. Therefore, determining the place of landing, you must definitely choose the best, one that will fully satisfy the needs of raspberries.
An ideal option for a raspberry-covered area is an equal place, protected from the winds, not suffering from shading, having medium or light mechanical soil, groundwater level not higher than 1.5 m, a highly nutritious arable layer and good moisture supply. In any other option, raspberries will suffer: excess moisture can cause its roots to rot, a lack of small berries and a small number of shoots, strong blowing in combination with low temperatures - dying of stems, placement in lowlands - freezing of buds, planting on hillocks - lack of moisture . All this affects the yield!
Raspberry planting method
A no less important role in the quantity and quality of the raspberry crop is played by the planting method. If you take and plant young plants in unprepared soil, they are unlikely to thank a large number of berries. But if you put a powerful organic pillow under a raspberry, culture will reward you with good development, resistance to diseases, and plenty of fruits. Therefore, the best way to plant raspberries, and I talked about it in the article “The best method for planting raspberries,” is a trench when a layer of organic material is laid in the ditches prepared for planting, which provides the bush with food for one year.
But in addition to charging the beds with fertilizers, laying the spatial freedom of plants is also required. Relying on the fact that raspberry bushes will grow already in the second year, and they will need sufficient area for nutrition, vegetative mass and maintenance, the rows between raspberries should be left with a prospect of about 1.2 m, and if the variety is tall (and many modern high-yielding varieties reach a height of more than 2.5 m) then more.
This agricultural technique is no less important than all the previous ones. From how raspberries will be trimmed (and whether it will be cut at all), how many flower brushes on it will be formed for the future harvest.
To date, the most effective method of pruning annual raspberries is method A. G. Sobolev. It focuses on the culture grown in compliance with the full range of agricultural techniques, and is as follows.
First step. In June and July, when raspberries bear fruit on overwintered shoots, new shoots intended for fruiting next year intensively rise from its roots next year. As soon as they reach a height of 80 - 120 cm, their tops are shortened by 10 - 15 cm. Within a month, lateral branches will appear from the axils of the leaves of the trimmed shoots, and by mid-autumn they will reach a length of 30 - 40 cm. In this state, raspberries go into winter.
Stage Two. In the spring, without waiting for the foliage to appear, it is again necessary to trim the raspberries, this time shortening the second-order shoots by 5 cm (the same side branches, the growth of which was provoked last year). This will give an impetus to the formation of lateral branches and on them.
Thus, by the time of fruiting, the formed raspberry will have branches of both first and second order, and visually resemble a tree. As soon as the bush gives back the crop, without waiting for autumn, the fertilized shoots must be cut to the root. This will release the batteries for the new growth, improve its ventilation and light. For new shoots, the technique of double pruning, etc., is again applied.
This method has established itself as a way to double the raspberry crop. And all because the raspberry tree formed in this way lays berry branches not only on the mother (main) shoots, but also on the lateral branches formed on them.
And what about repair varieties? With repairing varieties can be done in two ways.
Option number 1. From autumn or early spring, cut the full-grown bush to improve the quality of the next year’s autumn crop, and the summer crop will be skipped.
Option number 2. In the summer, at the first return of the berries, cut off the two-year-old shoots, which leave the opportunity to give new sprouts a harvest in the fall.
In order to increase the yield of remont raspberries, it is important to remember one more pruning technique - thinning. Repairing varieties are very sensitive to thickening and react to it not only with a small berry, but also with a noticeable decrease in its quantity. Therefore, a very important point in increasing the number and size of berries of such raspberries is thinning raspberries. Only 4 fruit-bearing shoots can be left on a bush of a repairing variety.
However, no matter how correctly selected a place for raspberries, no matter how qualitatively they cut it, without proper care for raspberries, there can be no question of any increase in yield, especially in the variant with repair varieties.
Raspberries need water regularly and during the growth period, and at the time of flowering, and during the formation of berries, but not pouring, but maintaining the bed in a slightly wet state to a depth of 30 - 40 cm. When the bushes leave in the winter, carry out water-charging irrigation.
Will not be superfluous in the raspberry row spacingas well as the removal of weeds from the rows. It is noted that where raspberries grow among grass, a good harvest and the timely development of new shoots does not happen.
Very well, this raspberry responds to fertilizers. He loves ash, compost, rotted manure, needs nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, if it was planted by the trench method, the first 2 - 3 years it can not be fed, unless otherwise - feeding should be done in the spring, at the time of growth of new shoots and the formation of the ovary, and in the fall.
A good option for spring feeding is chicken manure, diluted 1 to 10 with water and slurry diluted in 3 to 4 parts of water. Under the autumn processing, you can make up to 5 buckets of manure per square meter, but after a year.
In cold areas, for the winter, raspberries are recommended to be bundled and bent to the ground, covering in a snowy period with a good layer of snow. And in the spring, to bring the ripening of the crop closer by two weeks, cover it with a black film or mulch it abundantly with ash.
Thus, a high harvest of raspberries, this is her gratitude for our attention.