Fertilizing vegetables with organic fertilizers
There are many ways to increase the yield of vegetable crops. Among them, the leading place is fertilizing with organic fertilizers (manure of horses, cattle, pigs, rabbits, goats and sheep, bird droppings, slurry, peat, humus, household waste, feces and composts based on them).
The nutrient content in them and the properties of these fertilizers are different, so it is not recommended to use them without analysis. Horse manure on straw bedding is most suitable for feeding. It is indispensable for stuffing a greenhouse and warming ridges. It contains 0.6% nitrogen, 0.3% phosphorus and 0.5% potassium. The introduction of horse manure into cold clay and moist soils contributes to their warming.
Cattle manure is more watery and warms the soil worse. The effect on the growth of vegetable crops is slower, but uniform and long. It is effective on dry and light soils. It is very good to fertilize cabbage with such manure.
Slurry is a fast-acting fertilizer, nitrogen and potassium of which are utilized by crops without large losses. Liquid pig manure is also rich in nitrogen (0.6%) and potassium (0.5%), but it decomposes more slowly.
Composts are used on warm soils, and in a mixture with horse plague they are suitable for almost all soils.
Poultry litter is especially rich in nitrogen (0.5%) and phosphorus (1.2%).
Before use, manure is insisted for two to three days (one part of manure in five to six parts of water), the litter is shaken in water (one part of the manure for 15-20 parts of water).
The need of various plant species for individual nutrients in the process of growth is changing. The following describes the procedure for fertilizing certain crops with organic fertilizers.
During the growing season, two top dressings are carried out. For every 10 liters of solution, add a glass of wood ash. To avoid the accumulation of nitrates, the second feeding is carried out no later than 1.5-2 months before harvesting.
Two weeks after planting, the first top dressing is carried out. In 10 l of water, one tablespoon of urea and 0.5 l of liquid mullein are dissolved. 0.7 l of solution is poured under the root of one plant. When the head of cabbage reaches the size of a walnut, a second top dressing is carried out. To do this, 0.5 l of liquid chicken manure is diluted in 10 liters of water and one tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer with trace elements is added. A liter of solution is consumed per plant.
The first time they feed at the time of flowering. In 10 l of water, one teaspoon of potassium sulfate, urea, superphosphate and a glass of mullein are diluted. 5-6 liters of solution are added per 1 m².
During fruiting, cucumbers are fed three times. For the first feeding in 10 l of water, dilute 0.5 l of fresh chicken manure, a tablespoon of nitrophoska and three tablespoons of wood ash.
After 15-18 days, the plants are fed a second time. In 1 liter of water, one liter of mullein diluted with water (1: 3) and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate, superphosphate and urea are diluted. This solution must be filtered and fed plants at the rate of 8-10 l / m².
After 15 days give the last top dressing. For 10 liters of water, take a liter of diluted (1: 3) chicken droppings and a tablespoon of full mineral fertilizer. Up to 5 liters of solution are consumed per 1 m².
Weakly developing crops are fed with a solution of bird droppings (in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:15) or slurry (1: 5). The first top dressing is carried out in a phase of three to four leaves.
The first time they are fed 20 days after transplanting seedlings: a tablespoon of nitrophoska and 0.5 l of liquid mullein are thoroughly mixed in 10 l of water and watered at the rate of 0.5 l of solution per plant. The second dressing is carried out at the beginning of the blooming of the second flower brush, the third - during the blooming of the third flower brush. In 10 l of water, 0.5 l of liquid mullein and one tablespoon of complete fertilizer are diluted. 5 m² of solution is consumed per 1 m².
The first top dressing is carried out after the appearance of three or four leaves. For 10 liters of water, add one and a half glasses of mullein, a tablespoon of nitrophosphate and one gram of boric acid. During the loading of root crops, they give a second top dressing with mineral fertilizers.
The first top dressing is carried out before the first hilling. One teaspoon of urea and 0.5 l of gruel-like mullein are diluted in 10 l of water, thoroughly mixed and watered at the rate of 3-4 l per 1 m².
After 15 days, a second top dressing is performed. The solution is prepared in advance. In 10 l of water, a teaspoon of complete fertilizer is diluted, 0.5 l of gruel-like chicken droppings and watered at the rate of 1 liter per bush. After applying the solution, the soil is loosened or spud plants.
The first top dressing is carried out before flowering. In a liter of water, one liter can of mullein is diluted, a tablespoon of nitrophoska is added. 1 liter of solution is consumed per plant.
The second top dressing is given during flowering. In 10 liters of water, a liter jar of chicken manure (1: 3) and a tablespoon of complete fertilizer are bred. 3 m² of solution is consumed per 1 m².
During the growing season they require three top dressings with organic fertilizers. The first top dressing is carried out 10-15 days after emergence of seedlings. In 10 l of water, 1 l of diluted mullein (1: 2), a tablespoon of nitrophoska is diluted. 5-6 liters of solution are consumed per 1 m². Subsequent feeding is carried out during flowering and fruiting. In a liter of water, a liter jar of chicken manure is bred, a tablespoon of urea and potassium sulfate, spending 6-7 liters per 1 m².
In the phase of three to five leaves, fertilizing with a solution of slurry or bird droppings is carried out.
Well respond to top dressing with organic fertilizers. 10-15 days after planting, the plants are fed a solution of slurry and litter. The second top dressing is carried out in the flowering phase, the third - during the fruiting period.
A week after planting, the first top dressing of slurry is carried out (1: 5). The second feeding is carried out with chicken droppings (1:10). Up to 10 liters of solution are consumed per 1 m².
If the radish grows slowly, the leaves become pale green, it must be urgently fed. For this, a teaspoon of urea and a glass of mullein are diluted in 10 liters of water. Consumption - 5 l / m².
Spend one top dressing. In 10 l of water, 0.5 l of mullein and a tablespoon of nitroammophoska are bred. Consumption - 3l / m².
Feeding with mullein (1: 6) or litter (1:10) is effective.
One liter of mullein is dissolved in 10 liters of water. Irrigation rate - 6 liters per 1 m².
S. V. Makarenko, candidate of biological sciences